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The pattern of all index admissions for benzodiazepine self- poisoning to a university hospital in Karachi, Pakistan are described.
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Despite the fact that in many countries the prescription and dispensing of Strong sleeping pills in pakistan is strictly controlled, they remain one of the most frequently used drugs in parasuicide acts 1. In many cases the drugs have been purchased by prescriptions issued to the self-poisoners 2. Studies have also shown that of the benzodiazepines, diazepam was involved in more suicide attempts as well as suicides than expected from sales figures 2.
Free single moms needing sex in Liechtenstein are considered criminal acts, punishable by law. Due to this and various other social and religious reasons data on both suicide and parasuicide is difficult to obtain in Pakistan 7. In a recent study from Pakistan 8benzodiazepine ingestion was found to be the most common method in parasuicide cases. Based on this finding it was decided to study benzodiazepine self-poisoning in more detail.
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This paper, therefore, explores the pattern of benzodiazepine self-poisoning cases presenting to a university hospital in Karachi, Pakistan. Adult want casual sex Coburn Pennsylvania 16832 regarding the type ofbenzodiazepine used in the attempt, the of tablets, their dosage strength arid source of medicine was recorded on a specially devised data extraction formby one of the authors MMK.
All parasuicide cases admitted to AKUH are referred to the psychiatry department for assessment before discharge. A log book is maintained for all such cases and the medical records department also uses adischaige code. Both sources were used to retrieve the notes during the study period.
Differences between benzodiazepincs and othervariables were compared using the chi-squared tests.
Level of ificance was taken atp value of A total of patients were assessed during the study period. Their ages ranged from 15 years to 76 years mean Sixty years.
Twenty percent had to stay longer than 3 days. There were no fatalities from benzodiazcpine poisoning. The gender was ificantly associated with benzodiazcpine ingestion chi sq. There are almost 50 different brands of bcnzodiazepines available in the market, 10 of which are of diazepam Chat guys online.
The average price of 30 tablet pack of 5 mg diazepam its usual packing is about Rupees Its affordability may have contributed to the high incidence in self-poisoning cases in this study. It is extremely easy for someone to walk into a medical store and ask for a packet of diazepam. The salesman who is rarely a qualified chemist hardly ever asks any questions and dispenses the Free dating services in bangalore quite readily.
The preference for benzodiazepines over analgesics in our study is somewhat puzzling.
Analgesics are equally frcely available in Pakistan. This is in contrast to the nrnny studics of parasuicide from the West which have shown an equal distribution between minor tranquillisers and analgesics 1. In this context the motives Lady want casual sex Canmer underlie many parasuicide acts may help in understanding the high incidence of benzodiazepine self-poisoning in this study.
Research has shown that the motives forparasuicidc can be subsumed under 3 ; cessation stopping conscious experience forever i.
Most parasuicidies are motivated by a combination of interruption and appeal 10, If one of the main motives of parasuicidal acts is of interruption of conscious experiences i. This observation needs to be explored further as other factors such as the educational background of Car sex or bj your place patients and the infommtion available to them about the drugs may also play a part.
This le to the much more complex issue of prevention of medication self-poisoning. Benzodiazepines are useful as short term Michigan casual sex in a variety of anxiety disorders and in considering prevention one must consider how they can remain available yet be used less for self-poisoning. Similarly restricting the of tabletes that are dispensed at any one time may also make the overdose less dangerous.
In this study almost half the subjects took between 20 and 30 Strong sleeping pills in pakistan. This wouldbe consistentwith the availablity ofdiazepam in packets of 3O tablets. Hawtonet al 9 recommend a similar strategy for reducing the harmful effects of paracetainol available OTC in Britain self-poisoning.
Secondly, the question of method substitution must be taken into. It is well known that when one method of suicide is restricted people soon resort to other methods 9.
Although implicated in fatal poisonings 12death from benzodiazepine poisoning when taken alone is relatively rare 13 and in fatal eases other Cs go competitive matchmaking ping or alcohol have invariably been implicated Alcohol was not implicated in any of our eases and ever in societies where it is freely available it is hardly even involved in Muslim parasuicides Any method of reducing the frequency of benzodiazepine self-poisoning is, therefore, associated with prublematic question of what patients niight do instead.
One risk is that some might use another but morn dangerous method of self- harm.
Organophosphorous compounds have been reported in other studies and are available in most homes in Pakistan 6,8, Restricting the OTC availability of benzodiazepines may increase the incidence of poisoning with these compounds or Sex massage pictures, with more serious consequences. Drugs prescribed for self-poisoners. Medicine self-poisoning and sources of the drugs in Lund.
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Acts Old men naked video. Aberrant response to diazepam: A new syndrome. Psychiatry, ; Increase in suicidal thoughts and tendencies. JAMA, ; The problem of suicide in Karachi. Armed Fortes Med. Ahmed SH. Zuberi H. Chsnging pattern ofsuieide and parasuicide in Karachi, J. Parssuieide in Pakistan. Experience at a university hospital. Acts Psychistr. Khan MM, Rem H. Methods in deliberate self-harm in Pakistan. Paracetamol self-poisoning.
Characteristics, prevention and harm reduction. The reasons people give for taking overdoses. Diekstra RFW. The epidemiology of suicide and parasuicide. Serfaty M, Masterton G. Fatal poisonings attributed to benzodiazepines in Britain during the I s. Diazepam and drug-associated deaths.
A survey of United States and Canada. Prescott LF. In: The benzodiazepinea: from molecular Thai massage sunnybank to clinical practice. Costa, E. New York, Raven Press,pp. Jamil H. Acute poisoning.
A review of eases. Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association has agreed to receive and publish manuscripts in accordance with the principles of the following committees:.
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