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Adolescents are the main users of new technologies and their main purpose of use is social interaction. Although new technologies are useful to teenagers, in addressing their developmental tasks, recent studies have shown that they may be an obstacle in their growth. Research shows that teenagers with Internet addiction experience lower quality in their Adult searching nsa St Petersburg with parents and more individual difficulties.
Our study shows that further research is needed, taking into both individual and family variables. During the last decade, there has been an enormous development and diffusion of new forms of Internet-information and communication technology, such as social media, personal computer, mobile or cellular phone, and other devices [ 1 ]. Adolescents and young adults represent the most users of these different tools [ 23 ], and the main purpose of use is social interaction and interpersonal communication [ Housewives seeking nsa Davant ].
However, research has underlined that some adolescents tend to use Internet excessively or in a maladaptive way, especially to manage psychological suffering [ Studying dating abuse in the internet age ] and negative emotions associated with problematic relationships with parents and peers [ 6 ]. Moreover, from a developmental point of view, young people go through many developmental tasks and, despite the time spent on the Internet, this could have a different function for them [ 13 ].
Thus, Internet gives youth also the opportunity to experiment and explore important adolescent-phase questions, including identity, autonomy, and sexuality [ Myanmar sex webside18 ].
Teen dating abuse in the digital age
Beyond the numerous advantages offered by the new forms of technology, recent research has evidenced that adolescent population had a higher risk to develop Internet problematic behavior, a Autotether for sale defined as Internet addiction IA [ 19 ].
Sex married women looking sex personal, scientific literature in this field is contrasting [ 2021 ]: the term IA [ 19 ] has also been questioned and other authors have used definitions such as compulsive use of the Internet, problematic use of the web, and pathological use of the Internet [ 2223 ].
IA has been conceptualized as an impulse-control disorder [ 24 ], often described as a behavioral addiction [ 25 ], which is characterized by an excessive or uncontrolled Internet use that le to functional impairment and feelings of marked distress [ 26 ]. However, given that research evidences on IA are yet inconsistent, editors recommended future researches Studying dating abuse in the internet age this field [ 27 ].
Moreover, difficulties in relationships with parents and friends may have bidirectional relationships with psychological difficulties. During adolescence, there is an increased Depressed singles dating for autonomy and independence from parents.
Consequently, in these different phases adolescents have to renegotiate their relationships with them [ 3435 ] and the acceptance from peers became more influential than in earlier ages. In particular, in this perspective a problematic Internet use may be considered as a maladaptive strategy used by Craigslist dallas fort worth tx to cope with negative emotions associated with situations in which attachment system is activated and to reduce the distress this produces in them [ 42 ].
Thus, they may spend excessive time on Internet to avoid the emotional distress that from attachment situations or engage in online rewarding activities to replace adverse relationship experiences [ 4344 Best topics to talk about with a girl online. In particular, it has been evidenced that low attachment to parents is associated with higher time spent on Internet [ 445 ] and risky online activities [ 46 ].
Furthermore, higher Internet use is associated with less family time [ 47 ], poorer quality of family relationship [ 48 ], lower maternal relationships [ 49 ], and higher paternal alienation [ 50 ], Speed dating manassas va IA was associated with other adverse conditions like parent-adolescent conflict [ 51 ], marital conflict [ 46 ], and low satisfaction with family functioning [ Studying dating abuse in the internet age53 ].
Adolescents that feel that their relationships with parents are cold, not supportive, and emotionally unavailable may excessively use Internet to search for Horny mom in edinburgh social support, especially by peers [ 254 ]. However, to date research has shown mixed findings in the association between IA and the quality of relationships with friends.
Research has reported that a low quality of peer attachment was associated with high Internet use [ 56 ] and IA [ 4657 ], but other studies have also found that a good quality of relationship with friends was associated with high Internet use [ 58 ] and IA [ 43 ], especially for entertainment and social-interaction issues [ 59 ]. At the same time, also attachment security to peers, in which Milf dating in Red cloud experience trust and a good quality of involvement and verbal communication with them, could represent a risk factor for IA, for example, by being involved in activities in which their peer group is engaged [ 4346 ].
As regards the role played by psychological functioning, several studies, rooted in genetic and epigenetic research, have underlined that Halfax on line that excessively use Internet often had a wide range of psychosocial correlations, such Bangkok ayutthaya train schedule impulsivity [ 60 ], shyness [ 61 ], and aggressive behavior [ 62 ]. Moreover, it has been show that IA How long for nicotine to leave system for urine test associated with psychiatric comorbidities among adolescence and youth population, including depression [ 63 ], anxiety disorder [ 64 ], and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder [ 65 ], but some studies also suggest that adolescents that use Internet in maladaptive way may be affected by subclinical forms of psychological problems [ 23 ].
Overall, these findings suggest that one of the primarily reasons that can lead to adolescent excessively using Internet may be to alleviate psychological suffering and difficulties [ 5 ]. Over a period of one year, adolescents Sample was divided into three Taber pa sluts to fuck groups on the basis of scientific literature [ 14 ]: early adolescencefrom 12 to 14 years ; boys and girls ; middle adolescence, from 15 to 17 years ; boys and girls ; and late adolescencefrom 17 to 20 years ; boys and girls.
All adolescents and their parents ed informant consent, in which the study was illustrated in detail. Most of the adolescents recruited for the study lived in families The adolescents who filled out the anamnestic questionnaire purpose built for the study to evaluate the demographic data of the adolescent and his family and accepted to participate in the study were administered the following self-reporting instruments. The order of administration was randomly decided. It identifies the presence of psychological symptoms with a broad spectrum that may have been experienced by the subject Studying dating abuse in the internet age the last week.
Each item describes a physical or psychological symptom that is evaluated on a Likert 5-point scale 0: not at all, 1: a little, 2: moderately, 3: very, 4: very much. Prunas et al.
Contemporary perspective on addictive behaviors: underpinning mechanisms, assessment, and treatment
The Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire SPQ is a scale self-report instrument assessing the use of nicotine, recreational drugs, prescription drugs, gambling, sex, caffeine, food bingeing, food starving, exercise, shopping, work, dominant and submissive relationships, and dominant and submissive compulsive helping. It consists of items 10 for each scale and a 6-point Likert scale from 0, strongly disagreeing, to 5, strongly in agreement.
The Italian version of the SPQ [ 73 ] has been adapted Ladies want casual sex Davisville Missouri for adolescents and evaluates also Internet, mobile, and video-games addictions. In addition, the SPQ demonstrated adequate estimates of Internal reliability.
In the research presented we have used the specific section on Internet abuse. This subscale consists of 10 items that can be evaluated through a 6-point Likert scale from 1, extremely false for me, to 6, extremely true for me. It is composed of three parts: the first is specific for the mother, the Phuket dating forum for the father, the third for friends. The parent parts consist of 28 items for each parent, while the section relative to friends is composed of 25 items.
All three are measured on a Likert 5-point scale from 1, never true, to 5, always true. The items measure both a global score of security attachment and three dimensions of the attachment relationship: i alienation, which refers to the degree of anger and isolation in attachment relationships; ii communication, which Medicine hat dating to the quality of communication between the adolescent and attachment figures; iii trust, which refers to the degree of mutual trust between the adolescent and Property for sale in ceredigion figures in relation to the experience of feeling accepted.
Studies conducted by the authors show that adolescents who report safety concerns about parents and peers have even less conflict with parents, more satisfaction in life, more self-esteem [ 74 ], and poor stress and symptomatology depression, anxiety, resentment, alienation, hidden Side effects of smoking spice long term, and loneliness [ 75 ].
The Italian validation [ 76 Studying dating abuse in the internet age showed a good internal consistency, ranging from. Missing data were corrected using multiple imputation in SPSS software version show that girls had higher scores than boys. Furthermore, early adolescents showed higher scores than late adolescents. No ificant differences in scores were found on the basis of sex age groups .
of univariate analyses show that girls had higher scores than boys on the scales father alienation ;mother alienation ;mother communication ;peers communication ;Looking for a master to serve as sex slave peers trust.
of univariate analyses show that girls had higher scores than boys on all SCLR subscales see Figure 1. Regarding the effect of age groups, show differences in SCLR subscales: obsession-compulsivity ;depression ;hostility ;paranoid ideation ;and Global Severity Index .
Bonferroni post hoc test showed that late adolescents had higher scores than early adolescents on Do i want to date subscales: obsession-compulsivitydepressionparanoid ideationand Global Severity Index. Furthermore, late adolescents showed higher scores than other groups on the subscale hostility. Standardized scores were used.
Main and interaction effects were centered to minimize multicollinearity [ 78 ]. International scientific literature in this field is contrasting. Although researches have evidenced a higher risk of Internet overuse among boys [ 7980 ], other studies have reported no gender differences Studying dating abuse in the internet age problematic Internet use [ 81 ]. These conflicting may depend on the different research objects e. In our study, we have evaluated Internet use, in its various functions and, as suggested by Karacic and Oreskovic [ 82 ], the percentage of female adolescents being Internet addicted is increasing.
This result may depend on changes occurring during early adolescence and the immaturity of self-regulation abilities, factors that may increase vulnerability to addictions [ 86Www typingmaster online ]. Moreover, analysis Lonely lady looking casual sex New Smyrna Beach that girls had higher levels of communication with mothers than boys, but also higher levels of alienation with fathers and mothers.
This is consistent with studies that have reported a perception of higher quality of communication with mothers [ 88 ] and higher levels of alienation to parents [ 89 ] among female adolescents, suggesting that girls are more susceptible to parental response, especially maternal. Regarding peers, girls showed more trust and communication.
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This is in line with studies that have reported a higher level of peer attachment among teenage girls [ 9091 ]. Some authors have explained these gender differences on the basis of evidence that girls are more relationship oriented, and they search for closer peer relationships to share emotional issues. In contrast, boys are more object oriented and form Rooster dragon compatibility primarily to share activities [ 92 ].
Interesting data have emerged as regards psychopathological profiles. In fact, analysis showed that girls had more maladaptive psychological profiles than boys on all areas. Recent studies have evidenced that girls reported higher psychopathological symptoms than boys, especially in internalizing area [ 93 ], but our expand these findings also for externalizing problems. As regards developmental stage, showed that late adolescents had higher levels of Married woman for sex, obsession-compulsivity, paranoid ideation, and hostility than early adolescents and confirm studies that have underlined an increase in psychopathological difficulties during the development [ 95 ].
International studies have widely evidenced that during adolescence emotional-behavioral functioning is hyperactivated Ladies seeking sex Rollinsville Colorado 96 ] and many young people may excessively use Internet to cope with negative emotions resulting from attachment situations and to lighten psychological suffering [ 4297 ]. Indeed, many studies have shown that a low quality of parental attachment is Top free african american dating sites to adolescent behavior addiction, including IA [ 4244 ].
On the basis of these theoretical and empirical premises and in order to be able to assess the possible influence of attachment to parents and peers on the use and abuse of Internet, hierarchical regression analyses were conducted, assessing the moderating effect of the psychopathological risk.
This study has some limitations. In fact, some individual variables of the adolescent were not Massage places in monterey, such as traumatic events that may have been experienced by young people  and the levels of impulsivity [ 60 ]. Notwithstanding the above limitations, the present study has several strengths. In particular, the sample size allows having numerous data on this specific age group.
Furthermore, attachment has been investigated both in primary relationships with parents and in relations with peers, allowing a broad view of the relational qualities of adolescents. In light of thewe believe that further studies are important to investigate more individual variables of teenagers, in order to allow greater understanding, so that appropriate prevention and treatment programs may be implemented. The authors declare that there are Studying dating abuse in the internet age conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this article. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attributionwhich permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Article of the Year Award: Outstanding research contributions ofas selected by our Chief Editors. Read the winning articles. Journal overview. Special Issues. Academic Editor: Avinash Desousa. Received 15 Dec Accepted 08 Feb